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Something is rotten in the state of Dotfiles

12 Jul 2019 in Blog

After a recent adventure rewriting my entire Dotfiles system to use POSIX make, I wanted something better.

First, let’s survey the state of Dotfiles the world over.

The Good

Most Dotfiles collections are shared on the internet via GitHub, and reading them is a fun pastime. They’re a great way to get insight into others’ workflow, and learn new tricks.

The Bad

Most Dotfiles, however, use radically different setup schemes and directory structures. Some have hand-crafted shell scripts (see my repo’s early history…); some prefer self-written tools (thoughtbot uses an in-house ruby tool called rcm IIRC); some use GNU Stow; some use make (myself included); some just list instructions in the README.

As a programmer, this variety of tools is exciting when it means people are thinking about how to solve the problem. Unfortunately, with few notable and widespread exceptions, these tools are all hand-crafted. While I will argue that Dotfiles are extremely personal and deserve to be hand-crafted, their management may not deserve the same.

The difficulty with the variety is that is hard for me to benefit from someone else’s setup script/tool/makefile/etc. It’s simply too personal, and often too hand-written. At least with my original scripts I eventually converted to an associative array, sticking with the convention that keys would be entries under links and values would be the eventual symlinks under ~.

The Ugly

This complaint is mostly because I took pains to get to POSIX make (and only POSIX make), throwing out all the shell scripts I’d accumulated over the years, the backups that get made of old Dotfiles, and the incessant prompting and messaging. (I finally settled for a trust myself mentality there.)

But let’s take a look at some code from the current Makefile (the most recent version is always on GitHub):

LINKS = links
# all the eventual symlinks in ~
$(HOME)/.ackrc \
$(HOME)/.bash \
$(HOME)/.bash_profile \
$(HOME)/.bashrc \
$(HOME)/.bin \
$(HOME)/.ctags.d \
$(HOME)/.git_template \
$(HOME)/.gitconfig \
$(HOME)/.gitignore_global \
$(HOME)/.gitshrc \
$(HOME)/.inputrc \
$(HOME)/.jupyter \
$(HOME)/.pythonrc \
$(HOME)/.tmplr \
$(HOME)/.tmux.conf \
$(HOME)/.vim \

# note the extra trailing newline,
# just so I don't have to see diffs with \ in them

# dependencies
$(HOME)/.ackrc: $(LINKS)/ackrc
$(HOME)/.bash: $(LINKS)/bash
$(HOME)/.bash_profile: $(LINKS)/bash_profile
$(HOME)/.bashrc: $(LINKS)/bashrc
$(HOME)/.bin: $(LINKS)/bin
$(HOME)/.ctags.d: $(LINKS)/ctags.d
$(HOME)/.git_template: $(LINKS)/git_template
$(HOME)/.gitconfig: $(LINKS)/gitconfig
$(HOME)/.gitignore_global: $(LINKS)/gitignore_global
$(HOME)/.gitshrc: $(LINKS)/gitshrc
$(HOME)/.inputrc: $(LINKS)/inputrc
$(HOME)/.jupyter: $(LINKS)/jupyter
$(HOME)/.pythonrc: $(LINKS)/pythonrc
$(HOME)/.tmplr: $(LINKS)/tmplr
$(HOME)/.tmux.conf: $(LINKS)/tmux.conf
$(HOME)/.vim: $(LINKS)/vim

Yes, I copy-pasta’d that verbatim for your benefit. Look at the overwhelming redundancy! It makes the programmer cringe: why bother writing code to automate these tasks if you can’t write good code? This is begging me to update one list and not the other; adding only to SYMLINKS will cause make symlinks to run all the time trying to build a file that won’t exist, while adding only to the dependencies will cause make symlinks to ignore a symlink I want to create! Ugh. There has to be a better solution

My preferred solution would be a DSL that could generate exactly (or near-exactly) the current Makefile I’m using. This DSL would let me specify the necessary and sufficient information (how files link together), and figure out the rest. It would output POSIX make for any generated code.

Better, it would give me syntactic sugar for common make idioms (like phony targets to run commands), and pass on everything that isn’t part of its syntax exactly as-is to make (this includes # comments!).

Finally, if the program generates a Makefile, it might as well have all targets it creates (and possibly all targets, though this requires parsing make constructs) depend on the original DSL file! Then, with careful writing, make symlink will first rebuild the Makefile if necessary, then generate the missing symlinks.

Enter, plink. It’s in rough design stage, but it should look something like this when I’m done (this would be called something like links.plink):

#! /usr/bin/env ./plink_submodule/plink

# literal make syntax
MY_VAR = value

target: $(MY_VAR)

# describes that the file ~/link comes from the file ./dotfile
link <= dotfile

# gives me a target with a recipe consisting of exactly the text of command
phony_name ! command

# gives me a target with a recipe consisting of exactly the text of commands...
phony_name2 !!

It shall be called plink because I will be writing in Perl and it will be used to manage my symlink-based Dotfiles. It will be so easy to use that all you need is to make plink a submodule, create your executable plink file (if you don’t have env, just make the interpreter the relative path to plink), and run it to get a Makefile with the semantics I’ve described above.

The env magic is to work around the fact that interpreters on shebangs cannot be nested (since plink starts with #! /usr/bin/env perl, this is an issue). env doesn’t care. It runs plink just fine.

I’m still working exactly the design of plink (I need to decide how ordering of the plink file will work, and if there are semantics for what becomes the default make target—and I really need to decide whether or not to generate unspecified code: see the lines for SUFFIXES and SHELL in the original). But it should be done soon—that’s the advantage of Perl’s text-processing power.

P.S. I know I’m solving a tool problem with another hand-crafted tool, but the DSL is just too powerful to resist, and it could easily be universal because it emits POSIX make. Users can customize as they want because of the way it passes everything else literally to make.

P.P.S. A vim plugin for plink will be stupid simple: I just have to include the make syntax, then add some rules for plink’s syntax, and we’re off to the races.


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