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CS Students Must Learn Computation Fundamentals

14 Jan 2020 in Blog

Another internet post sparks a small rant.

Problems & Solutions

Have you ever seen that famous StackOverflow post about “parsing” HTML with regular expressions?

This one cropped up today about detecting balanced parentheses: it’s amusing that the author converted to a correct approach only after the realization that

performance was quite slow when any large string was passed to the regex

…while failing to acknowledge the true flaw in the original approach.

Pop quiz

  1. Parsing HTML with regular expressions is possible. (True or False)
  2. Determining if parentheses are correctly balanced and nested is possible with a regular expression. (True or False)

Go read the linked posts, and see if your answer matches up.

Ironically enough, this post has sparked a lot of debate about whether it is “sometimes, sort of, mostly” OK to “parse” HTML with a regex. The argument is that “it worked for me this one time, it’s not production code, it’s a quick hack, so no harm no foul.” And I mostly agree. But it’s not parsing.

All CS Students Must Learn the Fundamentals of Computation Theory

I like the text Elements of the Theory of Computation by Lewis & Papadimitriou. It was used in my Comp 455 (Models of Languages & Computation).

Any student with this knowledge should know that language of balanced parentheses is context-free! It can never be decided with a regular expression: given any regular expression \(e\), there will always be a string \(s \in \text{BalancedParens}\) such that \(s \not\in \mathcal{L}(e)\)!

Students would be better programmers, and better equipped to reason about programs, if they knew what was achievable with certain formulations: and moreover, what was not.

In the case of balanced parentheses, we need a computer with power to decide at least context-free languages. A PDA is one-such computer; in this case, we effectively need a stack and a transition function.

I won’t give the entire formal description here (unless someone really asks for it), but I’ve coded a reference implementation in Clojure to keep with the theme of balanced parentheses.


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