# Junk Drawer

For all those little papers scattered across your desk

D. Ben Knoble on 07 Dec 2020 in Blog

The recent trend of not including man-pages with command-line “apps” (“tools” or “programs” are better words!) irks me.

## Where is this coming from?

Many places. Specifically:

Don’t bother with man pages. We believe that if you’re following these guidelines for help and documentation, you won’t need man pages. Not enough people use man pages, and they don’t work on Windows. If your CLI framework and package manager make it easy to output man pages, go for it, but otherwise your time is best spent improving web docs and built-in help text.

Citation: 12 Factor CLI Apps.

(Emphasis in original)

Unless you already know your users will want man pages, I wouldn’t bother also outputting them as they just aren’t used often enough anymore. Novice developers are unaware of them and they don’t work on Windows. Offline support isn’t necessary if you already have in-CLI help. Still, man page support is coming to oclif because in a framework I think it makes sense. It can be solved once for all oclif CLIs to reap the benefits.

## What’s wrong with no man-pages?

Let’s start with “what’s right about no man-pages?”. My answer: absolutely nothing. It’s laziness (and maybe a lack of good tooling). But if asciidoc and other markup languages can convert to man-pages, it’s time your program did too.

Now, what’s actually wrong with not having them? Well, to answer that question, I need to talk about how I use them.

I use man-pages for reference. Many of the best-written man-pages become well-known, to the point where I can quickly navigate to the appropriate section. Man-pages are nearly uniformly laid out for a reason.

I use man-pages for convenience. They are perfect when I just want to double-check a flag without breaking my flow (--help isn’t awful, but half the time it takes me too many invocations to get the right help!). Opening a web-browser is the epitome of breaking that flow: I actually left my work context (the terminal, where the program is going to run), and I have to flip between browser and terminal. Not hard on a wide screen, but on my laptop it’s not ideal. With a man-page, I know I can fire up a tmux pane or vim-split (thank you, :Man) to browse without disturbing my current context. Man-pages are nearly uniformly laid out for a reason.

Just to emphasize this, :Man ships with vim. In any vim, I can run that command (possibly prefaced by :runtime ftplugin/man.vim) and get a man-page. Conversely, it is harder to get the output of --help and friends where I want it. Some options:

Aside: this is a pain-point for me when I start working with certain languages. With C, K and keywordprg=:Man is usually good enough (and tags make up the difference). With Rust & Python, it’s been a hack-filled journey to get decent in-editor documentation support (and for Rust I almost always have to open a web-browser, even if it’s with a hot-key). For my workhorse SML, the only docs are web-browsed or local HTML pages. For lots of other languages, there’s just not much. Is it too much to ask programming-language designers to support local, text-based documentation in a program-consumable format? It doesn’t have to be a man-page, but something.

I use man-pages for search-ability and general text-manipulation. I have configured MANPAGER to use vim, so I have a powerful set of tools to deal with programs and their documentation. I even have maps for - and _ to start searching for short (-x) and long (--x…) flags, which makes for a quick browse (when formatted appropriately). I can’t do that with --help as easily (grepping doesn’t usually cut it), and even less as a pager has pretty poor search ability. Say it with me: Man-pages are nearly uniformly laid out for a reason.

Personally, I use man-pages to learn. When I’m not sure how something works, I can usually figure out from a good man thing. This isn’t really a selling point, but it is a part of many workflows. “Man” stands for “manual,” after all: or do people not read those anymore?

All this to say that what’s wrong with no man-pages is a lack of these things, particularly convenience and non-workflow-breaking-documentation.

## No man-page is better than a bad one

I’m looking at you gh. Your documentation, frankly, is atrocious. Only a sentence at worst that doesn’t actually tell me what you do! And the flag documentation is frankly so ambiguous that I’ve written commands with mutually exclusive flags set because it wasn’t at all clear that only one was allowed. (gh repo fork --clone false --remote true seems reasonable, no?).

So, don’t provide a man-page if it’s poor. But maybe find a way to write some good documentation that could be converted to a man-page (or vice-versa)?

## If not a man-page…

Well, something like vim’s :help is fantastic. It’s not for every program, but any seriously interactive (especially full-screen) program should consider something of the sort. It helps that the system is extendable and plain text, too.

## A few considered counter-arguments

• “Doesn’t work on Windows”: valid point. But what does? (Joking aside, surely there’s something that works as a documentation format for the Windows terminal besides HTML?)

• “Novices aren’t aware”: so educate them. Part of CLIG’s shtick was to educate users when they make a mistake with your command. It’s as easy as keeping --help brief with a pointer to “see man program for more details”.

Following up on that, I don’t consider --help to the end-all-be-all of documentation, as you’ve probably noticed. I only type --help when I’m sure it will be quick and useful: generally, a usage summary and a “Top 5” common options/invocations. Sometimes it’s to re-assure myself that the command does what I think it does, like when I use one of the more obscure git commands. When I want the whole book, I go to the man-page. Too-long --help is “saying too much” in the words of CLIG.

• “Offline support isn’t necessary if you already have in-CLI help”: false. (Or at least, I disagree.) Solution proposed: generate man-pages from in-CLI help or vice-versa. I favor the latter, actually, but I’m probably in the minority on that. I find that it’s nicer to write documentation in a textual format rather than in strings in code, especially in some languages. (Newlines? Continuations? Leading spaces? Ugh. Format it for me—I don’t want to have to care.)

• “otherwise your time is best spent improving web docs and built-in help text”: see above solution. They could all be one and the same (or at least tied together: sure, a tutorial might not be a good candidate for a man-page, at least for smaller programs. But it could link to an HTML version of the page that lives in my terminal.).